By the way: ALWAYS use binary ftp transfers.
In Ascii mode: Many .js and .css files contain very long lines, this causes transfer errors. Also, you do not want to replace newlines with carriage-return-newlines in shell scripts.
For filezilla: go to "Edit -> Settings ... -> FTP: File types" and choose 'Binary' for 'Default transfer type'. ## Using multiple ports Here is my recipe to install drupal on an ubuntu-pc. I find it convenient to have more that one website available on one system. The easiest solution I found is using different port numbers for each site, for example:
- etc ...
In this example, the host name of the system where the websites are situated is "geranium". So, to access the sites on a local network from another ubuntu-pc:
- etc ...
Note: Command line commands are preceded by $, for example:
$ ls -l
Note: in the text below, "geranium.local" is used as (part of) an url. When testing on the system where the installation is done, "localhost" can be used.
Note: make sure your umask is correctly set:
$ umask 022
Note: I use as editor "vim", so I use this in the instructions. Feel free to use another editor.
Note: The example-user is "theboss". Use your own login instead.
Step 1: install apache, the web server
$ sudo apt install apache2
test: a browser on the url: geranium.local, should show the Apache2 Ubuntu Default Page.
Step 2: install ftp server
$ sudo apt install ftpd
Step 3: install php, the language drupal is written in.
$ sudo apt install php libapache2-mod-php $ sudo a2enmod php7.0 # or php5.0, if php5 is your php version
test: create the file /var/www/html/phpinfo.php with the following content:
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
and test with the url: geranium.local/phpinfo.php . This should show the settings for your php installation.
Step 4: install mysql
Mysql is the database system where drupal saves nearly everything.
$ sudo apt install mysql-client mysql-server
You will be asked to set a password for the root-mysql-user. Note: this has nothing to do with the system-root-password.
Test on geranium:
$ mysql -u root -p -h localhost
should give the mysql prompt to signify that you started a mysql session. End this session with CNTRL-D.
Step 5: install phpmyadmin
Phpmyadmin is a web-based tool to manage the mysql server.
$ sudo apt install phpmyadmin libmcrypt-dev mcrypt
Choose "apache2" as server to configure for.
Click "yes" for configuration with dbconfig-common.
You will be asked for the mysql-root password.
You will be asked to choose a password for the use of phpmyadmin.
$ sudo ln -s /etc/phpmyadmin/apache.conf \ /etc/apache2/conf-available/phpmyadmin.conf $ sudo a2enconf phpmyadmin $ sudo phpenmod mcrypt $ sudo service apache2 reload
Test: the url geranium.local/phpmydamin should show the phpmyadmin page.
Step 6: enable userdir and clean urls
This step tells apache to use ~/public_html as place for the web pages of an user. This is not really necessary in this process, but can come in handy now and then. Enabling clean urls makes life with drupal easier.
$ sudo a2enmod userdir # to enable userdir $ sudo a2enmod rewrite # to enable clean urls $ sudo service apache2 restart $ cd /etc/apache2/mods-enabled
AllowOverride FileInfo AuthConfig Limit Indexes
$ sudo service apache2 reload
Test: logged in as usual, for example with user name "theboss":
$ mkdir -p ~/public_html $ echo "hello" > $HOME/public_html/index.html
The url geranium.local/~theboss should show the word "hello".
Step 7: enable php in user directories
Edit /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/php7.0.conf (or php5.conf)
$ sudo vim /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/php7.0.conf
and follow the instructions at the end of the file. After editing, the end of the file should show something as:
<IfModule mod_userdir.c> <Directory /home/*/public_html> php_admin_flag engine Off <Directory> <IfModule> $ sudo service apache2 reload
Test: logged in as "theboss":
$ echo '<?php phpinfo(); ?>' > ~/public\_html/phpinfo.php
The url geranium.local/~theboss/phpinfo.php should show the phpinfo screen.
Step 8: enable php error messages.
If not enabled, you will encounter blank screens or misleading screens when a php5 error occurs.
$ cd /etc/php/7.0/apache2/ # or /etc/php5/apache2 $ sudo cp php.ini php.ini.orig
Edit php.ini, change
display\_errors = Off into display\_errors = On $ sudo service apache2 reload
Test: logged in as "theboss":
$ echo '<?php apekool(); ?>' > ~/public\_html/apekool.php
The url geranium.local/~theboss/apekool.php should produce an error message in your browser.
Step 9: adapt apache to serve your new drupal website
We will arrange that:
- Your website is available as geranium.local:8081, or alternatively on the geranium system as localhost:8081
The website will be placed in ~theboss/public_html/ratrabbit
$ cd /etc/apache2/sites-available $ sudo cp 000-default.conf ratrabbit.conf
edit ratrabbit.conf. Change
<VirtualHost *:80> into <VirtualHost *:8081>
put after the line
Change the line
into the following lines:
DocumentRoot /home/theboss/public_html/ratrabbit <Directory /> Options FollowSymLinks AllowOverride All </Directory>
and save the file.
$ cd /etc/apache2
Edit ports.conf, after:
add this line:
$ sudo a2ensite ratrabbit # to enable your website $ sudo service apache2 reload # to restart apache2
Test: logged in as theboss:
$ cd ~/public_html $ mkdir ratrabbit $ cd ratrabbit $ echo '8081' > index.html
The url geranium.local:8081 should now show '8081'
Step 10: installation of drupal
In this example we use drupal-7.41, but probably there is a newer one available now. Use that version instead.
Logged in as theboss:
$ mkdir ~/drupals # folder to store drupal-related files $ cd drupals $ wget http://ftp.drupal.org/files/projects/drupal-7.41.tar.gz $ tar xf drupal-7.41.tar.gz $ rm ~/public_html/ratrabbit/index.html $ cd drupal-7.41 $ cp -r * .htaccess ~/public_html/ratrabbit
Test: The url geranium.local:8081 should show the configuration screen of drupal. DO NOT CONFIGURE YET.
Step 11: create an mysql user and a drupal database
- Goto url: geranium.local/phpmyadmin
User name: ratrabbit (or whatever you like)
click tab Users -> Add user<br>
Host: select Local
Password: choose password for user ratrabbit
Under database for user:<br>
choose 'Create database with same name and grant all privileges'
click 'Go' (right under)
In the left column should now show database 'ratrabbit', and in Users Overview should also show 'ratrabbit'.
Step 12: Configure drupal
Goto url geranium.local:8081 and follow the instructions carefully.
Now your website should be up and running. If you want another website next to the first one, but with port 8082 in stead of 8081, invent another name for your website, for example "dracula" in stead of "ratrabbit" and follow steps 9-12, replacing "ratrabbit" with "dracula" and "8081" with "8082".
It is not necessary to install drupal in the document-root directory for geranium.local:8081. Following the example above, you could define ~/public_html/ratrabbit as document-root, and install drupal in a subdirectory, for example ~/public_html/ratrabbit/drupal-website.